The ways of karma.


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The ways of karma...
Every object in the universe is endowed with four characteristics: dharma, karma, prema and gyana. Of these, karma is the most talked about; it is also the most misunderstood. The Gita says: “Gahna Karmanyo Gathi” -- Unfathomable are the ways of karma. There are three types of karma: praarabdha, sanchita and agami. The first is latent karma, an impression or seed of action. The second is karma as action, and the third is karma as result. praarabdha means ‘begun’; the action that is already manifesting and that is yielding its effect right now.

You cannot avoid it or change it, as it is already happening. Sanchita is accumulated karma. It is latent or manifested in the form of a tendency or impression in the mind. Sanchita karma can be burned off by spiritual practices before it manifests. Agami karma is the future karma of action; that which has not yet come and which will take effect in the future. If you commit a crime, you may not get caught today, but will live with the possibility that one day you may get caught. Karma is also always bound by time, because every action has a limited reaction.

If you do something good to people they will come to thank you and be grateful to you as long as they are experiencing the effect of your action. So, karma has only a limited sphere of its effect, be it good or badIt is often asked, “Why are good people made to suffer while those who commit injustice go unpunished?” Such questions arise when we see an event in its limited framework. No good action will yield a bad result and no bad action will bring a good result. This is the law of karma As you sow, so shall you reap.

If you sow a mango tree, some thorny bushes may come up because of the seeds present in the manure brought from somewhere else. It is not the mango seed that brings up the thorny bush. Your mango seed will bring mango fruit, in due course. Karma is that which propels reincarnation. The stronger the impression, the greater the possibility of the next life being according to that. So, often you reincarnate like the person you hate or love. The mind which is full of different impressions leaves this body but the impressions await suitable situations to come back.

So the last thought is very important. Whatever you do throughout your life, in the last moment your mind should be free and happy. Our perception of suffering, of good and bad, is always relative. God is absolute reality; a witness of all. See God as movie director, rather than as a judge. He has no ill feeling for the villain and no special favour for the hero. Each one is playing her role. An awareness of dharma helps in comprehending the strange ways of karma. Whenever you see bad karma or someone suffering, you need to help. ~ S S Ravi Shankar
Friday, May 26, 2017
Posted by Shoumik Das

The concept of 33 koti devata in Hinduism!

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The concept of 33 koti devata in Hinduism:

The Vedas refer to not 33 crore Devatas but 33 types (Koti in Sanskrit) of Devatas. They are explained in Shatpath Brahman and many other scriptures very clearly.

"Yasya Trayastrinshad Devaa Ange Sarve Samaahitaa, Skamma Tam Bruhi Katamah Swideva Sah”. ~(Atharva Veda 10-7-13)

Which means: with God’s influence, these thirty-three (supporting devta) sustain the world.

In Brhadaranyaka Upanishad while discussing Brahman, Yajnavalkya is asked how many gods are there. He says that there are three hundred and three and three thousand and three gods. When the question is repeated? He says, thirty three. When the question is again repeated he says, six. Finally, after several repetitions he says ONE. (Chapter I, hymn 9, verse 1)

The number 33 comes from the number of Vedic gods explained by Yajnavalkya in Brhadaranyaka Upanishad – the eight Vasus, the eleven Rudras, the twelve Adityas, Indra and Prajapati. (Chapter I, hymn 9, verse 2)

They are: 8-Vasu, 11-Rudra, and 12-Aaditya, 1-Indra and 1-Prajaapati.

8. Vasus are: Earth, Water, Fire, Air, Ether, Moon, Sun, and Star. They are called Vasus, because they are abode of all that lives, moves or exists. (also mentioned in Mahabharat, 1/66/18)

11. Rudras: The ten Pranas (Praana, Apaana, Vyaana, Samaana, Udaana, Naag, Kurma, Krikal, Devadutta and Dhananjaya) i.e. nervauric forces which live in the human body. The eleventh is the human soul. These are called ‘Rudras’ because when they desert the body, it becomes dead and the relations of the deceased, consequently, begin to weep. Rudra means one who makes a person to weep. { also mentioned in Harivansha 13/51-52})

12. Adityaas ---the twelve months of a year called Adityaas, they cause the lapse of the term of existence of each object or being. { also mentioned in Mahabharat 1/65/15-16})

1. Indra which is also known as the (all-pervading) electricity, as it is productive of great force.

1. Prajaapati , also called the “Yajna” because it benefits mankind by the purification of air, water, rain and vegetables and because it aids the development of various arts, and in it the honor is accorded to the learned and the wise.

The master of these 33 Devatas is the Mahadeva or Ishwar who alone is to be worshipped as per 14th Kanda of Shatpath Brahman.

In HINDI :
हिंदू धर्म में 33 कोटि देवता की अवधारणा:

वेदों नहीं 33 करोड़ Devatas लेकिन Devatas के 33 प्रकार के (संस्कृत में कोटी) को देखें. वे Shatpath ब्रह्म और बहुत स्पष्ट रूप से कई अन्य शास्त्रों में समझाया जाता है.

"Yasya Trayastrinshad Devaa Ange Sarve Samaahitaa, Skamma टैम Bruhi Katamah Swideva साह". ~ (अथर्ववेद 10-7-13)

इसका मतलब है: भगवान के प्रभाव के साथ, इन तैंतीस (देवता का समर्थन) दुनिया को बनाए रखने.

Brhadaranyaka उपनिषद में ब्रह्म चर्चा करते हुए, याज्ञवल्क्य कितने देवता हैं वहाँ कहा है. उन्होंने +३०३ और +३००३ देवताओं रहे हैं कि कहते हैं. सवाल दोहराया जाता है? वह तैंतीस, कहते हैं. सवाल फिर दोहराया है जब वह छह, कहते हैं. अंत में, कई repetitions के बाद वह बोले. (अध्याय मैं, भजन 9, कविता 1)

आठ वसुओं, ग्यारह रुद्र, बारह आदित्यों, इंद्र और प्रजापति - संख्या 33 Brhadaranyaka उपनिषद् में याज्ञवल्क्य के द्वारा समझाया वैदिक देवताओं की संख्या से आता है. (अध्याय मैं, भजन 9, कविता 2)

वे हैं: 8 वासु, 11 रुद्र, और 12 आदित्य, 1 इंद्र और 1 Prajaapati.

8. वसुओं हैं: पृथ्वी, जल, अग्नि, वायु, आकाश, चंद्रमा, सूर्य, और स्टार. वे सब कि रहता है, चलता रहता है या मौजूद का निवास कर रहे हैं, क्योंकि वे वसुओं कहा जाता है. (यह भी महाभारत, 1/66/18 में उल्लेख किया है)

11. रुद्र: मानव शरीर में रहते हैं यानी nervauric बलों दस Pranas (Praana, Apaana, Vyaana, Samaana, Udaana, नाग, Kurma, Krikal, Devadutta और धनंजय). ग्यारहवें मानव आत्मा है. वे शरीर रेगिस्तान, जब यह मृत हो जाता है और मृतक के संबंधों क्योंकि ये 'रुद्र' कहा जाता है, फलस्वरूप, रोने लगते हैं. रुद्र रोने के लिए एक व्यक्ति करता है जो मायने रखता है. ) {भी Harivansha 13/51-52 में उल्लेख किया है}

12. एक वर्ष के बारह महीनों Adityaas बुलाया Adityaas ---, वे प्रत्येक वस्तु या होने के अस्तित्व की अवधि की चूक के कारण. ) {भी महाभारत 1/65/15-16 में उल्लेख किया है}

1. यह महान शक्ति के उत्पादक के रूप इंद्र जो भी, (सभी सर्वव्यापी) बिजली के रूप में जाना जाता है.

1. यह विभिन्न कलाओं का विकास एड्स, और उस में सम्मान सीखा है और बुद्धिमान के लिए दी जाती है क्योंकि यह हवा, पानी, बारिश और सब्जियों की शुद्धि से मानव जाति को लाभ मिलता है और क्योंकि यह भी "यज्ञ" कहा जाता Prajaapati,.

इन 33 Devatas के मास्टर अकेले Shatpath ब्रह्म की 14 वीं कांडा प्रति के रूप में पूजा जा रहा है जो महादेव या ईश्वर है.

Hindi in English :
Hindū dharma mēṁ 33 kōṭi dēvatā kī avadhāraṇā:

Vēdōṁ nahīṁ 33 karōṛa Devatas lēkina Devatas kē 33 prakāra kē (sanskr̥ta mēṁ kōṭī) kō dēkhēṁ. Vē Shatpath brahma aura bahuta spaṣṭa rūpa sē ka'ī an'ya śāstrōṁ mēṁ samajhāyā jātā hai.

"Yasya Trayastrinshad Devaa Ange Sarve Samaahitaa, Skamma ṭaima Bruhi Katamah Swideva sāha". ~ (Atharvavēda 10-7-13)

Isakā matalaba hai: Bhagavāna kē prabhāva kē sātha, ina taintīsa (dēvatā kā samarthana) duniyā kō banā'ē rakhanē.

Brhadaranyaka upaniṣada mēṁ brahma carcā karatē hu'ē, yājñavalkya kitanē dēvatā haiṁ vahām̐ kahā hai. Unhōnnē +303 aura +3003 dēvatā'ōṁ rahē haiṁ ki kahatē haiṁ. Savāla dōharāyā jātā hai? Vaha taintīsa, kahatē haiṁ. Savāla phira dōharāyā hai jaba vaha chaha, kahatē haiṁ. Anta mēṁ, ka'ī repetitions kē bāda vaha bōlē. (Adhyāya maiṁ, bhajana 9, kavitā 1)

Āṭha vasu'ōṁ, gyāraha rudra, bāraha ādityōṁ, indra aura prajāpati - saṅkhyā 33 Brhadaranyaka upaniṣad mēṁ yājñavalkya kē dvārā samajhāyā vaidika dēvatā'ōṁ kī saṅkhyā sē ātā hai. (Adhyāya maiṁ, bhajana 9, kavitā 2)

Vē haiṁ: 8 Vāsu, 11 rudra, aura 12 āditya, 1 indra aura 1 Prajaapati.

8. Vasu'ōṁ haiṁ: Pr̥thvī, jala, agni, vāyu, ākāśa, candramā, sūrya, aura sṭāra. Vē saba ki rahatā hai, calatā rahatā hai yā maujūda kā nivāsa kara rahē haiṁ, kyōṅki vē vasu'ōṁ kahā jātā hai. (Yaha bhī mahābhārata, 1/66/18 mēṁ ullēkha kiyā hai)

11. Rudra: Mānava śarīra mēṁ rahatē haiṁ yānī nervauric balōṁ dasa Pranas (Praana, Apaana, Vyaana, Samaana, Udaana, nāga, Kurma, Krikal, Devadutta aura dhanan̄jaya). Gyārahavēṁ mānava ātmā hai. Vē śarīra rēgistāna, jaba yaha mr̥ta hō jātā hai aura mr̥taka kē sambandhōṁ kyōṅki yē'rudra' kahā jātā hai, phalasvarūpa, rōnē lagatē haiṁ. Rudra rōnē kē li'ē ēka vyakti karatā hai jō māyanē rakhatā hai. ) {Bhī Harivansha 13/51-52 mēṁ ullēkha kiyā hai}

12. Ēka varṣa kē bāraha mahīnōṁ Adityaas bulāyā Adityaas ---, vē pratyēka vastu yā hōnē kē astitva kī avadhi kī cūka kē kāraṇa. ) {Bhī mahābhārata 1/65/15-16 mēṁ ullēkha kiyā hai}

1. Yaha mahāna śakti kē utpādaka kē rūpa indra jō bhī, (sabhī sarvavyāpī) bijalī kē rūpa mēṁ jānā jātā hai.

1. Yaha vibhinna kalā'ōṁ kā vikāsa ēḍsa, aura usa mēṁ sam'māna sīkhā hai aura bud'dhimāna kē li'ē dī jātī hai kyōṅki yaha havā, pānī, bāriśa aura sabjiyōṁ kī śud'dhi sē mānava jāti kō lābha milatā hai aura kyōṅki yaha bhī"yajña" kahā jātā Prajaapati,.

Ina 33 Devatas kē māsṭara akēlē Shatpath brahma kī 14 vīṁ kāṇḍā prati kē rūpa mēṁ pūjā jā rahā hai jō mahādēva yā īśvara hai.
Friday, April 14, 2017
Posted by Shoumik Das

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose : Father of the Indian Freedom


Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose : Father of the Indian Freedom
Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose : Father of the Indian Freedom

Index

  • Preface
  • Subhash Chandra Bose's Life
  • Start of the opposition to British by Subhash Chandra Bose
  • Subhash Chandra Bose in Britain for ICS and return to India
  • Subhash Chandra Bose with Congress
  • Subhash Chandra Bose Vs. Congress
  • Formation of 'Azad Hind Fauj' by Subhash Chandra Bose
  • Effect of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose's earlier visits to England
  • Disappearance

Preface

        Subhash Chandra Bose was one of India's greatest freedom fighter. He was the founder of the Indian National Army, popularly known as 'Azad Hind Fauj'. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose had visited London during pre-independence period to discuss the future of India, with the members of the Labor party. His sudden disappearance from Taiwan, led to surfacing of various theories, concerning the possibilities of his survival.

Life of Subhash Chandra Bose

        Subhash Chandra Bose was born on 23 January, 1897 in Cuttack (Orissa) to Janakinath Bose and Prabhavati Devi. Janakinath Bose was one of the successful lawyer in Cuttack and received the title of "Rai Bahadur". He, later became a member of the Bengal Legislative Council.

        Subhash Chandra Bose was a very intelligent and sincere student but never had much interest in sports. He passed his B.A. in Philosophy from the Presidency College in Calcutta. He was strongly influenced by Swami Vivekananda's teachings and was known for his patriotic zeal as a student. He also adored Vivekananda as his spiritual Guru.

Start of the opposition to British by Subhash Chandra Bose

        Subhash Chandra Bose decided to take revenge, after reading so many incidents about the exploitation of the fellow Indians by the British. In 1916, Subhash reportedly beat and thrashed one of his British teachers E F Otten. The professor made a racist remark against the Indian students. As a result, Subhash Chandra Bose was expelled from the Presidency College and banished from Calcutta University. The incident brought Subhash in the list of rebel-Indians. In December 1921, Bose was arrested and imprisoned for organizing a boycott of the celebrations to mark the Prince of Wales's visit to India.

Subhash Chandra Bose in Britain for ICS and return to India

Subhash Chandra Bose at young age
Subhash Chandra Bose at young age

        Subhash Chandra Bose's father wanted him to become a civil servant and therefore, sent him to England to appear for the Indian Civil Service Examination. Bose was placed fourth with highest marks in English. But his urge for participating in the freedom movement was intense that in April 1921, Bose resigned from the coveted Indian Civil Service and came back to India. Soon, he left home to become an active member of India's independence movement. He, later joined the Indian National Congress, and also elected as the president of the party.

Subhash Chaandra Bose with Congress

        Subhash Chandra Bose worked under the leadership of Chittaranjan Das, an active member of Congress in Calcutta. It was Chittaranjan Das, who along with Motilal Nehru, left Congress and founded the Swaraj Party in 1922. Subhash would regard Chittaranjan Das as his political guru.

        While Chittaranjan Das was busy in developing the national strategy, Subhash Chandra Bose played a major role in enlightening the students, youths and labors of Calcutta. He was eagerly waiting to see India, as an independent, federal and republic nation.

Subhash Chandra Bose Vs. Congress

        In freedom struggle congress was large organisation. Subhash Chandra Bose became a strong leader in Congress and he made brave attempt to mould the entire party differently. Congress party was always lenient and never in a position to oppose. Saubhashbabu outrightedly opposed this behaviour. This opposition was against Gandhi‘s philosophy. Therefore Mahatma Gandhi and other leaders were hurt and since then they opposed him.

        Congress party had undertaken a deed of opposing his every thoughts, insulting him and cut down his wings of high flyer. In this manoeuvre of congress many of times he felt suffocated. Once there was a picture of ‘Subhash Chandra Bose against entire congress party’. It was first election of congress that time. Usually closer aide of Mahatma Gandhi used to get elected; but this time Subhash Chandra Bose got elected with higher votes. This insulted Gandhi group, which lead to their less interest of thinking towards parties campaign for independence.

        In order to acknowledge outside support and get freedom he went till Germany, Japan when it was period of 2nd world war! He decided to induce soldiers from outside to get freedom. Nehru at that time said   “If Subhash would bring soldiers from outside and enter India, then I would be the first person to take sword in hand and oppose him.” so much he disgust Subhash.

Formation of Azad Hind Fauj by Subhash Chandra Bose

Netaji with Azad Hind Fauj
Netaji with Azad Hind Fauj

        Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was against rendering any kind of help to the British during the World War II. He warned them so. The second World War broke out in September of 1939, and just as predicted by Bose, India was declared as a warring state (on behalf of the  British) by the Governor General, without consulting Indian leaders. The Congress party was in power in seven major states and all state governments resigned in protest.

        Subhash Chandra Bose now started a mass movement against utilizing Indian resources and men for the great war. To him, it made no sense  to further bleed  poor Indians for the sake of colonial and imperial nations.  There was a tremendous response to his call and the British promptly imprisoned him . He took to a hunger-strike, and after his health deteriorated on the 11th day of fasting, he was freed and was placed under house arrest. The British could do nothing except locking him in the prison.

        It was in 1941, that Subhash Chandra Bose suddenly disappeared. The authorities did not come to know for many days that he was not in his Barrack (the house in which he was being guarded). He traveled by foot, car and train and resurfaced in Kabul (now in Afghanistan), only to disappear once again.  In November 1941, his broadcast from German radio sent shock waves amongst the British and electrified the Indian masses who realized that their leader was working on a master plan to free their motherland. It also gave fresh confidence to the revolutionaries in India who were challenging the British in many ways.

        The Axis powers (mainly Germany) assured Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose military and other help to fight the British. Japan by this time had grown into another strong world power, occupying key colonies of Dutch, French, and British colonies in Asia. Netaji Bose had struck alliance with Germany and Japan. He rightly felt that his presence in the East would help his countrymen in freedom struggle and second phase of his saga began. It is told that he was last seen on land near Kiel canal in Germany, in the beginning of 1943. A most hazardous journey was undertaken by him under water, covering thousands of miles,  crossing enemy territories. He was in the Atlantic, the Middle East, Madagascar and the Indian ocean. Battles were being fought over land, in the air and there were mines in the sea. At one stage he traveled 400 miles in a rubber dingy to reach a Japanese submarine, which took him to Tokyo. He was warmly received in Japan and was declared the head of the Indian army, which consisted of  about 40,000 soldiers from Singapore and other eastern regions. These soldiers were united by another great revolutionary Rash Behari Bose. Rash Behari handed over them to Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose. Netaji Bose called it the Indian National Army (INA) and a government by the name "Azad Hind Government"  was declared on the 21st of October 1943. INA freed the Andaman and Nicobar islands from the British and were renamed as Swaraj and Shaheed islands. The Government started functioning.

        Subhash Chandra Bose wanted to free India from the Eastern front. He had taken care that Japanese interference was not present from any angle. Army leadership, administration and communications were managed by Indians only. Subhash Brigade, Azad Brigade and Gandhi Brigade were formed. INA marched through Burma and occupied Coxtown on the Indian Border. A touching scene ensued when the solders entered their 'free' motherland. Some lay down and kissed, some placed pieces of  mother earth on their heads, others wept. They were now inside India and were determined to drive out the British! Delhi Chalo (Let's march to Delhi) was the war cry.

        The bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki changed the history of mankind. Japan had to surrender.

Effect of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose's earlier visits to England

        During his sojourn to England, he met with the leaders of British Labor Party and political thinkers including Clement Attlee, Arthur Greenwood, Harold Laski, G.D.H. Cole, and Sir Stafford Cripps. Bose also discuss with them about the future of India. It must also be noted that it was during the regime of the Labor Party (1945-1951), with Attlee as the Prime Minister, that India gained independence.

Disappearance of Subhash Chandra Bose

        Although it was believed that Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose died in a plane crash, his body was never recovered. There have so many theories been put forward regarding his abrupt desertion. The government of India set up a number of committees to investigate the case and come out with truth.

        In May 1956, the Shah Nawaz Committee visited Japan to look into the situation of Bose's assumed death. Citing their lack of political relations with Taiwan, the Centre, did not seek for the assistance from their government. The reports of Justice Mukherjee Commission, tabled in Parliament on 17 May, 2006 said, "Bose did not die in the plane crash and the ashes at Renkoji temple are not his". However, the findings were rejected by the government of India.


References :


1. Culture India
2. Hall of Heroes
3. Daily Sanatan Prabhat
Monday, January 23, 2017
Posted by Shoumik Das

We will win no wars with old weapons



By Priyadarshi Dutta
Stephen P Cohen and Sunil Dasgupta, in their book ‘Arming without Aiming: India’s Military Modernization’ (2010) have focused on the dilemmas of India’s militarisation. The core problem is that India is culturally and socially not a militarised state. While the armed forces are praised and are popular, they are not the fulcrum of the nation. India’s diplomatic and military policies are marked by restraint rather than aggression. They are reflective of Indian mind.

Military mindset : Nehru versus Subhash

Nehru might be blamed in isolation for ruining India’s defence production. But he was conditioned by the matrix of historical-cultural-economic forces. Should a newly independent nation, not self-sufficient in food production, invest in weapons ? Without building up heavy industries (problem addressed in the Second Five Year plan) self-sufficiency in defence production was a chimera. India had achieved its independence by civilian methods – not warfare or Revolution. The armed forces had played no role in shaping of India’s republican polity. Those soldiers who had joined Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose’s Azad Hind Faujj were discredited as traitors. On this issue Nehru and India’s iron man Sardar Patel were one. These were the challenges of stepping up indigenous defence production.
It is purely conjectural what would have happened if Netaji Subhas Bose had been triumphant in his mission. Perhaps he, like George Washington, would have commanded the nation. One can imagine the India of Subhash Bose would have been mentally tougher than India of Nehru. India could have transformed itself into a robust state despite its perennial mindset. Bose himself had been a Khadi clad Congressman before he became the Supreme Commander of Azad Hind Fauj.
The issue of India becoming self-reliant in defence matters was not lost on Subhash Bose. NG Ganpuley in his book Netaji in Germany : A Little Known Chapter tells how Netaji had met President of Skoda (originally a Czech arms manufacturing company) in Prague. He had promised to help Indians set up arms manufacturing facilities and train its staff when India became independent.

Still a lightweight in air

Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, formed by merger to two aviation companies in 1964, is running in its 50th year. The original company Hindustan Aircraft Limited was set up in Mysore State in 1940. But its long product line is about light aircraft and light helicopters. India cannot produce Advanced Light Helicopters, Medium Lift Helicopters let alone heavy lift helicopters like Chinuk. Thus for purchasing military aircraft and helicopters we need to be dependent on likes of Agusta Westland, Boeing, Eurocopter etc.

The Tatra Trucks case

Building trucks is no rocket science. But we need to import trucks even while excelling in rocket science. Close to 8000 Tatra Trucks are being used by the Indian Army in various modifications. The number is less than five per cent of authorized motorised vehicles used by the Army. Bharat Earth Movers Limited (established 1964) now known by acronym BEML is the authorised importer of those trucks. Since 1997, these trucks have not been purchased directly from the company but through a vendor Tatra Siphox UK. For the last 24 years, it has not been able to achieve full indigenisation of Tatra as originally envisaged. The BEML had converted the currency of payment from dollars to euros causing a loss of Rs 4 crores and did not levy Liquidated Damages charges resulting in loss of another Rs 9.27 crores. The BEML chief VRS Natarjan was suspended, and later retired. Ravi Rishi, CEO of Tatra Siphox UK is behind the bars. The CBI claims under Natarajan the BEML had partially surrendered indigenisation rights.

Scientists leaving DRDO

The DRDO (Defence Research Defence Organisation) is the backbone of India’s R&D in military matters. The DRDO has developed missiles, aeronautical systems, radars, sonars, torpedoes, combat vehicles, bridges etc. This organisation is of critical importance for indigenisation of defence manufacturing. But for the last few years, it has been in news for scientists quitting it. In the last five years, 443 scientists at various levels have resigned from the organisation. This information came from Defence Minister AK Antony to the Rajya Sabha on March 20, 2013 in response to a question put by BJP’s Piyush Goyal.

 Scientists resigned from DRDO
Post
Year
Total
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
Scientist ‘B’
83
41
38
58
46
266
Scientist ‘C’
64
18
18
21
16
137
Scientist ‘D’
  9
  2
  2
  5
  4
  22
Scientist ‘E’
  5
  1
  3
  1
  1
  11
Scientist ‘F’
  1
  3
  2
  1
  -
   7
Total      162
65
63
86
67
443

Though the resigned scientists have indicated personal / domestic grounds for leaving DRDO, it is assumed they have secured lucrative opportunities elsewhere. The Government has now declared a slew of incentives to retain the scientists.


A middleman with Congress background

The challenges of indigenous production are no less than importing weapons and equipments. Though we perceivably have an honest Defence Minister, the UPA Government seems to have become a playground for middlemen. The most pronounced case is that of Abhishek Verma, who is now lodged in Tihar jail along with his Romanian wife Anca Neascu. He is charged with trying to bribe a Defence Ministry official on behalf of American small gun manufacturer Sig Sauer. Interestingly Abhishek Verma, a proclaimed con man, is the son of late Hindi poet Shrikant Verma. Shrikant Verma (1933-1986) was national spokesperson of the Congress (I) and Rajya Sabha member on Congress ticket. Abhishek’s mother Veena Verma was also a Rajya Sabha member from the Congress. His political connections helped him until he overreached.

A leader with a vision

Much depends upon who leads India. Wars are won and lost in the mind. The same applies to preparation for war. I had concluded an earlier article by saying we need a strong political leader like Narendra Modi to ensure India’s indigenous defence production base expanded. I am not surprised that he is thinking along the right lines. 
Source: Niti Central

Azad Hind Sena’s Captain Lakshmi Sehgal !



Captain Lakshmi Sehgal helped Netaji Subhashcandra Bose to escape by putting up a brave fight for 16 hours on Burma border with the army that had latest weapons !

Index

  • Subhashbabu founds ‘Jhansi Rani Lakshmi Squad’ and Lakshmi takes up its leadership
  • Captain Lakshmi divides the squad in different contingents and marches to fight the British army
  • Jhansi Rani squad defeats squad of valiant British soldiers and forces them to surrender in the battle fought on the border of Hindustan and Mynamar (Burma)

Subhashbabu founds
‘Jhansi Rani Lakshmi Squad’ and Lakshmi takes up its leadership

Captain Lakshmi was born at Chennai on 24.10.1914. At the age of 24, she passed MBBS examination in 1938. She heard speeches of Netaji Subhashchandra at Singapore, was influenced and drawn to ‘Azad Hind Sena’.

Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansi was born on 22nd October. On the same day in the year 1943, Subhashbabu founded ‘Jhansi Rani Lakshmi Squad’ in ‘Azad Hind Sena’. Lakshmi took over the leadership of this squad.
 

Captain Lakshmi divides the squad
in different contingents and marches to fight the British army

Along with her different contingents, Captain Lakshmi marched towards battlefield to fight against her enemy i.e. the British army. In fact, she didn’t have enough food, clothes or ammunition. The part where she was to go, was full of thick forest and vallies.

Jhansi Rani squad defeats squad of valiant British soldiers and forces them to surrender in the battle fought on the border of Hindustan and Mynamar (Burma)

An order was received to march at early morning. The British army must have been a mile away and it charged on the squad. Captain Lakshmi immediately ordered to retaliate. Jhansi Rani squad attacked the British army, guns started firing, cannons started blowing fire balls at the enemy. The acclamations of ‘Jai Hind’, ‘Inquilab Zinzabad’, ‘Azad Hind Zindabad’ made the British squad to tremble. The firing went on amongst the slogans. Captain Lakshmi’s ‘Rani of Jhansi’ won. Rani Jhansi squad forced the brave squad of British soldiers to surrender in the battle fought on the border of Hindustan and Burma.



Source : Mr. Nivrutti B. Shirodkar (Dainik Navprabha’, 3.11.1999)
Posted by Shoumik Das

Jantar Mantar - Temple of Instruments


Hello Readers,

Being in Delhi, anyone fascinated by India's ancient scientific brilliance cannot afford to miss the Jantar Mantar. This historic observatory is located on Sansad Marg near Connaught Place. If you are in the mood for a walk, you can do so from the Rajiv Chowk Metro Station. Otherwise, it's a 5 minute ride in an auto-rickshaw.


The "Jantar Mantar" is a common name used to denote the set of 5 astronomical observatories built by Maharaja Jai Singh II. Apart from the Delhi, these observatories are located in Jaipur, Mathura, Ujjain and Varanasi. Except the one in Ujjain, all the others have stood the test of time.

The term Jantar Mantar seems to be a corruption of the term "Yantra Mantra", where Yantra means Instrument and Mantra means Formula. It can also be a corruption of the term "Yantra Mandir", which translates into Temple of Instruments.

The Jantar Mantar in Delhi had a total of 4 major instruments, listed below:

1) Samrat Yantra
2) Ram Yantra
3) Jai Prakash Yantra
4) Mishra Yantra


The images of these instruments are shown below. It is understood that the Samrat Yantra is unparalleled in its size, and is clearly the largest sundial in the world.






Please find all scientific information about the instruments in this enlightening document:



It is wonderful to note that Indians used scientific instruments of such huge proportionality so many years back !


Till next time,

Shoumik Das
Hindu Terminal
www.hinduterminal.org

==================
Friday, December 30, 2016
Posted by Shoumik Das

Interesting Facts about Tirupati Balaji you may not know

The Tirupati Balaji temple is one of the most revered holy sites of Hindu religion and many people believe that life of a devout Hindu is not fulfilled till the time he visits this temple. Let’s go through few of the amazing facts about Tirupati Balaji
C:\Users\Nandan\Videos\Videos\Savaari\New\November\10-20th\India\Venkateshwara_Tirupati_Temple.jpg
Tirupati Balaji temple, Andhra Pradesh by Chandrashekhar Basumatar
  1. Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams, (TTD) is the trust that manages the Tirupati Balaji Temple. Apart from the sale of prasad, darshan tickets etc., a huge chunk of money comes from the gold offerings and donations made to the deity. It is estimated that TTD earns more than Rs 6 crores per day.
C:\Users\Nandan\Videos\Videos\Savaari\New\November\10-20th\India\A_Tirupathi_laddu.jpg
Tirupati laddu source by Wikipedia
  1. The Laddus have been used as Prasad in the temple since the last 300 years. To counter the black market of Laddus developing on the name of Tirupati Balaji Temple, the laddus were patented under the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act. The pious offering was introduced in the year 1715 and today, and as of today more than 150000 laddus are made daily.
  2. On an average, more than 50000 pilgrims visit Tirupati Balaji Temple every day and on special occasions like the annual Brahmotsavam, the number of devotees can go up to 500,000 or more. Many people come from Chennai as it is the nearest metro city having an international airport. You can hire direct Chennai to Tirupati cabs for convenience.
C:\Users\Nandan\Videos\Videos\Savaari\New\November\10-20th\Tirupati\Srivari bramhostavam.jpg
Srivari bamhostavam source by Wikipedia
  1. Tirumala is mentioned in the most important holy scripture ‘Ramayana’.  As per it, during the Treta Yuga, Lord Rama stayed in Tirumala for some time after winning the war against Ravana in Lanka.
  2. Having hair on the head is considered as a sign of beauty and Vedic wisdom urges us to control this distraction. Pilgrims express their devotion to Lord Venkateshwara by shaving off their hair at the temple.
C:\Users\Nandan\Videos\Videos\Savaari\New\November\10-20th\Tirupati\Gundu.jpg
Shave head child in Tirupati source by itsmylifenmyspace
  1. The temple is surrounded by ancient hills having beautiful natural rock formations. One of the hill is in shape of Garuda, the vehicle of Lord Venkateshwara.
C:\Users\Nandan\Videos\Videos\Savaari\New\November\10-20th\Tirupati\Garuda-Rock-2.jpg
Garuda shape hill source by gotirupati
  1. Oil lamps are used in worshipping Lord Venkateshwar and the amazing fact is that these lamps never get flickered out. It is believed that these lamps were lit up thousands of years ago and will remain like this forever.
  2. At one kilometre from the Tirumala temple, there is a natural stone arch which is an ancient wonder. A detailed survey was conducted by the Geological Survey of India scientists and it is found to be 2.5 billion years old. This natural stone arch has the shape of a serpent hood, Sankha and Chakra, which are all the sacred elements associated with Lord Vishnu’s celestial body.
C:\Users\Nandan\Videos\Videos\Savaari\New\November\10-20th\Tirupati\Natural_stone_arch_in_tirumala.jpg
Natural stone arch in tirumala source by Wikipedia
  1. It is believed that Goddess Lakshmi Devi resides in the chest of Lord Vishnu. During Nija Roopa Darshanam ritual on Thursdays, Lord Venkateshwara’s idol is decorated with wood paste. When the decoration is removed, the impression on Lakshmi Devi remains. This imprint is then sold by the temple authorities.
C:\Users\Nandan\Videos\Videos\Savaari\New\November\10-20th\Tirupati\Titupati balaji.jpg
Tirupati balaji stupa source by pranav
10. Celebrities like Amitabh Bachchan and many others are seen visiting this temple very often. The jewellery related to this temple is very popular and believed to be holy and blissful. You will find many people wearing Tirupati Balaji bracelets as a symbol of their devotion and love to Lord Venkateshwara.
The whole process of standing in a queue for Darshan could be tiring. To have more comfort in your trip, it is recommended that you travel in Chennai to Tirupati cab. Savaari.com is a reliable provider of Chennai cab service.

Written By Avyaya Jawalkar

Maharana Pratap : Valour and Unbreakable determination personified



Related imageMaharana Pratap(Source of image: rajputras.blogspot.in )

Contents

  • Introduction of Maharana Pratap
  • Childhood of Maharana Pratap
  • Maharana Pratap's Coronation
  • Unbreakable oath to free 'Motherland' by Maharana Pratap
  • Battle of Haldiighat: Supreme fighter 'Maharana Pratap.'
  • Severe destiny of Maharana Pratap
  • Devotion of Bhamashah towards Maharana Pratap
  • Last Wish of Maharana Pratap

Introduction of Maharana Pratap


 
Maharana Pratap is a name worth remembering to begin one’s day with. His name is engraved with gold among the list of valiant kings who protected the Nation, Dharma, Culture and Freedom of this country by sacrificing his life! This is a holy remembrance of his valor!

Who does not know the name of the great king of Mewar, Maharana Pratap Singh? In the history of India, this name has always proved to be motivating for qualities like valor, bravery, sacrifice and martyrdom. Many brave warriors like Bappa Rawal, Rana Hamir, Rana Sang were born unto the Sisodiya family of Mewar and were given the title of ‘Rana’ but the title of ‘Maharana’ was only bestowed on Pratap Singh. 

Childhood of Maharana Pratap

Maharana Pratap was born in 1540. Rana Uday Singh, the Second, of Mewar had 33 children. Among them, the eldest was Pratap Singh. Self-respect and virtuous behavior were the main qualities of Pratap Singh. Maharana Pratap was bold and brave right from his childhood, and everyone was sure that he was going to be a very valiant person as he grew up. He was more interested in sports and learning to wield weapons rather than general education.

Maharana Pratap's Coronation


 
During Maharana Pratap Singh’s time, Akbar was the Mughal Ruler in Delhi. His policy was to make use of the strength of Hindu kings to bring other Hindu Kings under his control. Many Rajput kings, abandoning their glorious traditions and fighting spirit, sent their daughters and daughters-in-law to the harem of Akbar with the purpose of gaining rewards and honor from Akbar. Uday Singh appointed before his death, Jagammal, the son of his youngest wife as his heir although Pratap Singh was elder to Jagammal but he was ready to give up his rights like Prabhu Ramchandra and go away from Mewar but the chieftains did not at all agree with their king’s decision. Besides they were of the opinion that Jagammal did not possess qualities like courage and self-respect which were essential in a leader and king. Hence it was collectively decided that Jagammal would have to sacrifice the throne. Maharana Pratap Singh too gave due respect to the wish of the chieftains and the people and accepted the responsibility of leading the people of Mewar.
 

Unbreakable Oath of Maharana Pratap to free the ‘Motherland.'

 
Maharana Pratap's enemy had surrounded Mewar at all its’ boundaries. Shakti Singh and Jagammal, the two brothers of Maharana Pratap had joined Akbar. The first problem was to gather enough soldiers to fight a face-to-face war which would have required vast money, but Maharana Pratap’s coffers were empty whereas Akbar had a large army, a lot of wealth and a lot more at his disposal. Maharana Pratap, however, did not get distracted or lose heart nor did he ever say that he was weak as compared to Akbar.

Maharana Pratap's only concern was to immediately free his motherland from the clutches of the Mughals. One day, he called a meeting of his trusted chieftains and made an appeal to them in his serious and lustrous speech. He said, “My brave warrior brothers, our Motherland, this holy land of Mewar, is still under the clutches of the Mughals. Today, I take an oath in front of all of you that till Chittod is freed, I will not have food on gold and silver plates, will not sleep on a soft bed and will not stay in the palace; instead I will eat food on a leaf-platter, sleep on the floor and stay in a hut. I will also not shave till Chittod is freed. My brave warriors, I am sure that you will support me in every way sacrificing your mind, body, and wealth till this oath is fulfilled.” All the chieftains were inspired with the oath of their king and they too promised him that till their last drop of blood, they would help Rana Pratap Singh to free Chittod and join him in fighting the Mughals; they would not retreat from their goal. They assured him, “Rana, be sure that we all are with you; waiting only for your signal and we are ready to sacrifice our life.”                      

Battle of Haldighat : Supreme fighter 'Maharana Pratap.'

 

Akbar tried his best to bring Maharana Pratap under his clutches; but all in vain. Akbar got angry as no compromise could be arrived at with Maharana Pratap, and he declared war. Maharana Pratap also started preparations. He shifted his capital to Kumbhalgad in the Aravalli range of mountains which was difficult to access. Maharana Pratap recruited tribal people and people dwelling in forests in his army. These people had no experience of fighting any war, but he trained them. He appealed to all Rajput chieftains to come under one flag for Mewar’s independence.

Maharana Pratap's army of 22,000 soldiers met 2,00,000 soldiers of Akbar at Haldighat. Maharana Pratap and his soldiers exhibited great valor in this battle although he had to retreat but Akbar’s army was not successful in completely defeating Rana Pratap. 

Maharana Pratap and his faithful horse named ‘Chetak’ also became immortal in this battle. ‘Chetak’ was seriously injured in the battle of Haldighat but to save his master’s life, it jumped over a big canal. As soon as the canal was crossed, ‘Chetak’ fell and died thus it saved Rana Pratap, risking its life. The strong Maharana cried like a child over the death of his faithful horse. Later he constructed a beautiful garden at the place where Chetak had breathed its last. Then Akbar himself attacked Maharana Pratap but even after six months of fighting the battle. Akbar could not defeat Maharana Pratap and go back to Delhi. As a last resort, Akbar sent another great warrior General Jagannath in the year 1584 with a huge army to Mewar but after trying relentlessly for two years, even he could not catch Rana Pratap.

Severe destiny of Maharana Pratap

 
Maharana Pratap used to take his family with him even when wandering in the jungles and valleys of the mountains. There always used to be the danger of the enemy attacking at anytime from anywhere. Getting proper food to eat was an ordeal in the forests. Many times, they had to go without food; they had to wander from one place to another without food and sleep in the mountains and forests. They had to leave the food and immediately proceed to another place on receiving information about the enemy’s arrival. They were constantly trapped in some catastrophe or the other.

Once the Maharani was roasting ‘bhakris (Indian bread)’ in the forest; after eating their share, she asked her daughter to keep the left over ‘bhakri’ for dinner, but at that time, a wild cat attacked and took away the piece of ‘bhakri’ from her hand leaving the princess crying helplessly. That piece of ‘bhakri’ was also not in her destiny. Rana Pratap felt sorry to see the daughter in such state; he got angry with his valor, bravery, and self-respect and started thinking whether all his fighting and bravery was worth it. In such a wavering state of mind, he agreed to call a truce with Akbar. A poet named Prithviraj from Akbar’s court, who was an admirer of Maharana Pratap, wrote a long letter in the form of a poem to him in Rajasthani language boosting his morale and dissuading him from calling a truce with Akbar. With that letter, Rana Pratap felt as if he had acquired the strength of 10,000 soldiers. His mind became calm and stable. He gave up the thought of surrendering to Akbar, on the contrary, he started strengthening his army with more intensity and once again immersed himself in accomplishing his goal.               

Devotion of Bhamashah towards Maharana Pratap

There was a Rajput chieftain serving as a minister in the regime of forefathers of Maharana Pratap. He was very much disturbed with the thought that his king had to wander in forests and was going through such hardships. He felt sorry to know about the difficult times Maharana Pratap was going through. He offered a lot of wealth to Maharana Pratap that would allow him to maintain 25,000 soldiers for 12 years. Maharana Pratap was very happy and felt very grateful.

Maharana Pratap initially refused to accept the wealth offered by Bhamashah but at his constant insistence, he accepted the offering. After receiving wealth from Bhamashah, Rana Pratap started receiving money from other sources. He used all the money to expand his army and freed Mewar except Chittod which was still under the control of the Mughals.   

Last wish of Maharana Pratap

 
Maharana Pratap was lying on the bed made of grass even when he was dying as his oath of freeing Chittod was not still fulfilled. At the last moment, he took his son Amar Singh’s hand and handed over the responsibility of freeing Chittod to his son and died in peace. There is no comparison in history to his fight with a cruel emperor like Akbar. When almost the whole of Rajasthan was under the control of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, Maharana Pratap fought for 12 years to save Mewar. Akbar tried various means to defeat Maharana, but he remained unbeatable till the end. Besides, he also freed a large portion of land in Rajasthan from the Mughals. He underwent so much of hardship, but he preserved the name of his family and his Motherland from facing defeat. His life was so bright that the other name for freedom could have been  ‘Maharana Pratap.' We pay tribute to his valiant memory!    

Source: Sanatan.org
Sunday, November 20, 2016
Posted by Shoumik Das

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